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NanoPhagix is developing technology that could change the way cardiology is practiced.

The NanoPhagix conjugate enables physicians for the first time to go inside the walls of coronary arteries and treat dangerous, heart attack‑causing plaques at their source.

Research demonstrates the presence of dangerous plaques in the aorta of a rabbit in the image at right.

Macrophages and Cardiovascular Disease

  • Think of Macrophages as the "dump trucks" of the body -- they clean up debris, bacteria, and unwanted materials in the blood stream.
  • In cardiovascular disease, they enter the walls of coronary arteries and clear deposits of excess cholesterol and fat.
  • As cardiovascular disease worsens, plaques form and macrophages inside the plaques gorge themselves with cholesterol and fat.
  • When this happens, the macrophages become foam cells and secrete enzymes that break down the inner surface of the blood vessel walls
  • This corrosive activity can cause a plaque to rupture and release material that blocks the flow of blood. The result -- a Heart Attack!

Treating and Healing the Source of Inflammation

  • Stable calcified plaques tend to be larger and can narrow arteries and reduce blood flow to the heart and brain. However, they do not typically rupture and cause cardiovascular or stroke events.
  • Unstable or "vulnerable" plaques tend to be smaller and less visible
  • Unstable plaques are more dangerous because they tend to be rupture prone
  • NanoPhagix's patent‑pending NP1178 conjugate targets rupture‑prone plaques at the source -- directly inside the vessel walls -- and reverses the inflammatory response, thereby beginning the healing process
  • The NanoPhagix conjugate stops acute plaque destabilization and thrombus formation, significantly reducing the risk of heart attack

The NanoPhagix Delivery Mechanism Is What Makes the NanoPhagix Conjugate So Unique

  • NanoPhagix nanoparticles are absorbed by macrophages at sites of inflammation inside the vessel walls.
  • This unique therapeutic delivery mechanism provides physicians with the ability to:
    1. Treat the inflammation associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and
    2. Reverse the inflammatory process and promote healing at the source of the inflammation inside the vessel wall.

Enzyme Activated Delivery System

  • The NanoPhagix conjugate contains rapamycin, a potent anti‑inflammatory
  • Stabilizers "stealth" the nanoparticles when they are injected intravenously
  • Enables the particles to distribute throughout the circulatory system
  • Macrophages absorb the drug and secrete enzymes that activate the rapamycin
  • The activated rapamycin component reverses the inflammatory response...
  • Promotes healing inside the vessel wall
  • Provides measurable reduction of plaques
  • Unique delivery mechanism controls the unwanted distribution of rapamycin to healthy cells in the body


1 Fabien Hyafil, Jean-Christophe Cornily, Jonathan E Feig et al,"Noninvasive detection of macrophages using a nanoparticulate contrast agent for computed tomography",Nature Medicine 13, 636 - 641 (2007), Published online: 8 April 2007.

2A. Rad, Mikael Häggström, Spacebirdy, RexxS, domdomegg (File:Hematopoiesis (human) diagram en.svg) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons" https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6d/Macrophage.svg/64px-Macrophage.svg.png

3 Korosoglou G, Giusca S, Gitsioudis G et al,"Cardiac magnetic resonance and computed tomography angiography for clinical imaging of stable coronary artery disease. Diagnostic classification and risk stratification.",Front Physiol. 2014 Aug 6;5:291.