Easter Island and Rapamune molecules

Disease

Disease icon

NanoPhagix is developing a unique therapeutic delivery system that lets doctors treat the major cause of heart attacks directly at the source.

Cardiovascular Disease

  • Every 43 seconds, someone in the United States has a heart attack.1
  • Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the main cause of a heart attack.1
  • Every year about 735,000 Americans have a heart attack. Of these, 525,000 are a first heart attack and 210,000 happen in people who have already had a heart attack.2

A heart attack occurs when a part of the heart muscle is damaged or dies because blood flow is reduced or completely blocked. This happens because coronary arteries that supply the heart with blood can slowly become thicker and harder from a buildup of fat, cholesterol and other substances, called plaque. This slow process is known as atherosclerosis. If the plaque in the blood vessel breaks open and a blood clot forms that blocks the blood flow, a heart attack occurs.3

Additional Reading

The following citations are related to the NanoPhagix technology and to atherosclerosis and will provide additional background information for those interested.

  1. Castro C, Campistol JM, Sancho D, Sánchez-Madrid F, Casals E, Andrés V. Rapamycin attenuates atherosclerosis induced by dietary cholesterol in apolipoprotein-deficient mice through a p27 Kip1 -independent pathway. Atherosclerosis. 2004 Jan;172(1):31-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=14709354
  2. Pakala R, Stabile E, Jang GJ, Clavijo L, Waksman R. Rapamycin attenuates atherosclerotic plaque progression in apolipoprotein E knockout mice: inhibitory effect on monocyte chemotaxis. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2005 Oct;46(4):481-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=16160601"
  3. Gadioli AL, Nogueira BV, Arruda RM, Pereira RB, Meyrelles SS, Arruda JA, Vasquez EC. Oral rapamycin attenuates atherosclerosis without affecting the arterial responsiveness of resistance vessels in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2009 Dec;42(12):1191-5. Epub 2009 Nov 6.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19893993"
  4. Chen WQ, Zhong L, Zhang L, et al. Oral rapamycin attenuates inflammation and enhances stability of atherosclerotic plaques in rabbits independent of serum lipid levels. British Journal of Pharmacology. 2009;156(6):941-951. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2008.00102.x.; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=PMC2697718
  5. Claudia Castro, Josep M. Campistol, David Sancho, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid, Elena Casals, Vicente Andrés, Rapamycin attenuates atherosclerosis induced by dietary cholesterol in apolipoprotein-deficient mice through a p27Kip1-independent pathway, Atherosclerosis, Volume 172, Issue 1, January 2004, Pages 31-38, ISSN 0021-9150, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2003.09.003.; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021915003003964"
  6. Victor J. Dzau, Ruediger C. Braun-Dullaeus, Daniel G. Sedding;"Vascular Proliferation and Atherosclerosis: New Perspectives and Therapeutic Strategies", Nat Med. 2002;8(11) .; http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/443901_5"
  7. Claudia Castro, Josep M. Campistol, David Sancho, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid, Elena Casals, Vicente Andrés,"Rapamycin attenuates atherosclerosis induced by dietary cholesterol in apolipoprotein-deficient mice through a p27Kip1-independent pathway",Atherosclerosis (2004), Volume: 172, Issue: 1, Pages: 31-38, DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2003.09.003; http://www.atherosclerosis-journal.com/article/S0021-9150(03)00396-4/abstract
  8. Gadioli, A.L.N., Nogueira, B.V., Arruda, R.M.P., Pereira, R.B., Meyrelles, S.S., Arruda, J.A., & Vasquez, E.C.. (2009). Oral rapamycin attenuates atherosclerosis without affecting the arterial responsiveness of resistance vessels in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 42(12), 1191-1195. Epub November 06, 2009.; https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2009005000036"
  9. Martinet W, De Loof H, De Meyer GR. mTOR inhibition: a promising strategy for stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis. 2014 Apr;233(2):601-7. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.01.040. Epub 2014 Jan 29. Review. PubMed PMID: 24534455.; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24534455#"
  10. Elloso M.M, Azrolan N, Sehgal SN, Hsu PL, Kopec CA, Basso MD, Phiel KL, Adelman SJ. Protective effect of the immunosuppressant sirolimus against aortic atherosclerosis in Apo E-deficient mice. American Journal of Transplantation 2003: 3(5); 562-569.; http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1034/j.1600-6143.2003.00094.x/pdf
  11. Basso M, Nambi P, Adelman SJ. Effect of sirolimus on the cholesterol content of aortic arch in ApoE knockout mice. Transplantation Proceedings 2003: 35; 3136-3138.; http://www.transplantation-proceedings.org/article/S0041-1345(03)01145-X/abstract
  12. Adelman SJ. Anti-inflammatory drugs, sirolimus, and inhibition of target of rapamycin and its effect on cardiovascular Disease pgs 315 -324. Textbook of Interventional Cardiovascular Pharmacology. Edited by Nicholas N. Kipshidze, Jawed Fareed, Jeffrey W. Moses, and Patrick W. Serruys. London, Informa Healthcare, 2007
  13. Porter TR , .Xie F, Kipshidze N Adelman SJ. Nanoparticle Based Targeted Delivery of Therapeutics. Invited Chapter: Handbook of the Vulnerable Plaque, 2nd edition, Ed: Schaar, Waksman and Serruys. Publisher: Taylor & Francis Medical Books. 2008.
  14. Hyafil, F., Cornily, J.-C., Feig, J. E., Gordon, R., Vucic, E., Amirbekian, V., ...Fayad, Z. A., Noninvasive detection of macrophages using a nanoparticulate contrast agent for computed tomography. Nat Med, 13(5), 636-641, 2007. ; http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v13/n5/full/nm1571.html

References

1 "Heart Attack", Centers for Disease Control, http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/heart_attack.htm

2 Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics–2015 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015;131:e29-322

3 "Heart Attack", American Heart Association; accessed: August 2016, http://watchlearnlive.heart.org/CVML_Player.php?moduleSelect=hrtatk